Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum- Structure and Functions

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum- Structure and Functions

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) In 1897, Garnier observed the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) with a light microscope. Ergastoplasm was the term coined by him. In 1945 Porter first reported the Endoplasmic Reticulum. It was discovered independently by Porter and Thompson. It is a continuous membrane system. At one end, it connects the nuclear membrane. At the other end, it connects the cell …

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Golgi body (Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex)- Properties, Structure, Functions

Golgi body Properties Golgi body or complex is an organelle that is bound by a membrane in eukaryotic cells. The Golgi body is also called as Golgi apparatus, Golgi complex, lipochondrion, Barker’s body, Dalton Complex, and Apparato Reticulare. Golgi complex may have distinct subunits called Golgiosomes, idiosomes, or dictyosomes. It is called dictyosomes, in plants and lower invertebrates. The flattened, …

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Mitochondria- Definition, Properties, Structure, Functions

Mitochondria Structure

Mitochondria Properties Mitochondria is the cell organelle which is filamentous and granular structure. It is present in higher plants, animals, and some microorganisms.  It is absent in bacteria but is found in algae, protozoa, and fungi. To carry out the energy metabolism, mitochondria have got the lipoprotein framework.  It consists of the different enzymes and coenzymes.  Mitochondria also consist of …

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Cell membrane- Definition, Composition, Structure, Functions

Cell membrane- Definition, Composition, Structure, Functions

Cell membrane (Plasma membrane) The outer thin membrane or the layer of the living cell is known as the cell membrane. It is also known as the plasma membrane in animal cells. In the plant cells, it is known as plasmalemma. The term cell membrane was given by Nageli and Cramer (1885) for the membrane covering of the protoplast. There …

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Nucleus- Definition, Structure, Composition, Functions, Worksheet

Nucleus

What is Nucleus? Nucleus Properties The Nucleus is an important cell organelle that is present in the eukaryotic cell. It is derived from the Latin word, ‘nucleus’ or ‘ nuculeus’. It means kernel or seed. It is first described by Robert Brown as the cell organelle. It was named chromatin by the Flemming. It is double-membraned. It consists of genetic …

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Best AS & A Level Biology Books to Study (From 2022 Exam)

A Level Biology Books for 2022 Exam

Here are some of the best A Level Biology Books that we can study which are useful for examination from 2022. Book Cover page sources: Respective Books Website. Disclaimer: Books cover page, information, and table of contents are only used for educational purposes. If there are any copyright issues regarding the images, cover page, and information of the book, please email us …

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Enzyme Inhibitors- Competitive, Noncompetitive, End-product inhibition

Enzyme Inhibitors and Enzyme Inhibition

What are Enzyme Inhibitors? Inhibitors are compounds that convert the enzymes into inactive substances and thus adversely affect the rate of enzymatically-catalyzed reaction is called an enzyme inhibitor, and the process involved is termed enzyme inhibition. Some enzyme inhibitors are normal body metabolites that inhibit a particular enzyme while other inhibitors may be foreign substances, such as drugs or toxins. …

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Factors affecting enzyme action and immobilized enzymes

Factors that affect enzyme action

Factors that affect enzyme action Enzymes are biological catalysts that accelerate the rate of chemical reactions in the biological system of living beings. Like catalysts, enzymes are also affected by a number of factors that regulate enzyme action. These factors are related to the chemical nature of enzymes as enzymes are proteins, and proteins are affected by most of these …

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Enzymes- Definition, Structure, Types, Mode of action, Functions

Enzymes

Enzymes Definition An enzyme is a protein biomolecule that acts as a biocatalyst by regulating the rate of various metabolic reactions without itself being altered in the process. The name ‘enzyme’ literally means ‘in yeast’, and this was referred to denote one of the most important reactions involved in the production of ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide through the agency …

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Lipids- Definition, Structure and Functions, Fatty acids

Lipids and Fatty Acids

What are Lipids? Lipids are a group of diverse macromolecules consisting of fatty acids and their derivatives that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Lipids consist of fats, oils, hormones, and certain components of membranes that are grouped together because of their hydrophobic interactions. The lipids are essential constituents of the diet because of their high energy value.   These …

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